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Scientific Resources

What is Red Light Therapy?  

Red light therapy works by stimulating the mitochondria in your cells to function better and product energy more efficiently. When the mitochondria in each of your cells becomes stimulated, the energy cycle in your body begins– making you feel invigorated, younger and full of energy. Simply put, red light therapy powers your cells. A premium light device from Vital Red Light delivers red and near infrared light straight to your cells with medical grade LEDs.

 

Red Light Therapy is Scientifically Proven

Red Light Therapy and the therapeutic application of light (photobiomodulation) has been studied across thousands of different clinical trials resulting in outstanding results with virtually no side effects. Listed below are studies in which Red Light Therapy, photobiomodulation, or LLT (low level laser therapy) have produced therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of different areas. You will find them broken up into different sections based on their benefit.

 

Key areas of focus in this article include:

Bone

Brain & Cognition

Muscle Recovery

Mental Health

Pain

Sleep

Skin

Testosterone

  

Bone

 

Photobiomodulation on critical bone defects of rat calvaria: a systematic review

Brassolatti P, de Andrade ALM, Bossini PS, et al. Photobiomodulation on critical bone defects of rat calvaria: a systematic review. Lasers Med Sci. 2018;33(9):1841-1848. doi:10.1007/s10103-018-2653-z

 

Photoengineering of bone repair processes

Pinheiro AL, Gerbi ME. Photoengineering of bone repair processes. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006;24(2):169-178. doi:10.1089/pho.2006.24.169

 

 

Brain & Cognition

  

Transcranial light-emitting diode therapy for neuropsychological improvement after traumatic brain injury: a new perspective for diffuse axonal lesion management

Dos Santos, João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto et al. “Transcranial light-emitting diode therapy for neuropsychological improvement after traumatic brain injury: a new perspective for diffuse axonal lesion management.” Medical devices (Auckland, N.Z.) vol. 11 139-146. 26 Apr. 2018, doi:10.2147/MDER.S155356

 

Shining light on the head: Photobiomodulation for brain disorders

Hamblin, Michael R. “Shining light on the head: Photobiomodulation for brain disorders.” BBA clinical vol. 6 113-124. 1 Oct. 2016, doi:10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.09.002

 

Traumatic Brain Injury–Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths — United States, 2007 and 2013

Taylor CA, Bell JM, Breiding MJ, Xu L. Traumatic Brain Injury–Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths — United States, 2007 and 2013. MMWR Surveill Summ 2017;66(No. SS-9):1–16.

 

Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue

Tedford CE, DeLapp S, Jacques S, Anders J. Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue [published correction appears in Lasers Surg Med. 2015 Jul;47(5):466]. Lasers Surg Med. 2015;47(4):312-322. doi:10.1002/lsm.22343

 

Red and NIR light dosimetry in the human deep brain

Pitzschke A, Lovisa B, Seydoux O, et al. Red and NIR light dosimetry in the human deep brain. Phys Med Biol. 2015;60(7):2921-2937. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/60/7/2921

 

Psychological benefits 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment with near infrared light to the forehead: a pilot study of 10 patients with major depression and anxiety

Schiffer F, Johnston AL, Ravichandran C, et al. Psychological benefits 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment with near infrared light to the forehead: a pilot study of 10 patients with major depression and anxiety. Behav Brain Funct. 2009;5:46. Published 2009 Dec 8. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-5-46

 

Focal increase in cerebral blood flow after treatment with near-infrared light to the forehead in a patient in a persistent vegetative state

Nawashiro H, Wada K, Nakai K, Sato S. Focal increase in cerebral blood flow after treatment with near-infrared light to the forehead in a patient in a persistent vegetative state. Photomed Laser Surg. 2012;30(4):231-233. doi:10.1089/pho.2011.3044

 

Low-level laser light therapy improves cognitive deficits and inhibits microglial activation after controlled cortical impact in mice

Khuman J, Zhang J, Park J, Carroll JD, Donahue C, Whalen MJ. Low-level laser light therapy improves cognitive deficits and inhibits microglial activation after controlled cortical impact in mice. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29(2):408-417. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1745

 

Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study

Naeser MA, Zafonte R, Krengel MH, et al. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study. J Neurotrauma. 2014;31(11):1008-1017. doi:10.1089/neu.2013.3244

 

Improved cognitive function after transcranial, light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, traumatic brain injury: two case reports

Naeser MA, Saltmarche A, Krengel MH, Hamblin MR, Knight JA. Improved cognitive function after transcranial, light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, traumatic brain injury: two case reports. Photomed Laser Surg. 2011;29(5):351-358. doi:10.1089/pho.2010.2814

 

Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players

Zhao J, Tian Y, Nie J, Xu J, Liu D. Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players. J Athl Train. 2012;47(6):673-678. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-47.6.08

 

Traumatic Brain Injury: A Major Medical Problem That Could Be Treated Using Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared LED Photobiomodulation

Naeser, Margaret A, and Michael R Hamblin. “Traumatic Brain Injury: A Major Medical Problem That Could Be Treated Using Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared LED Photobiomodulation.” Photomedicine and laser surgery vol. 33,9 (2015): 443-6. doi:10.1089/pho.2015.3986

 

 

Fat Loss

 

Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for body contouring and spot fat reduction

Caruso-Davis MK, Guillot TS, Podichetty VK, et al. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for body contouring and spot fat reduction. Obes Surg. 2011;21(6):722-729. doi:10.1007/s11695-010-0126-y

 

Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults

Figueiro, Mariana G et al. “Light modulates leptin and ghrelin in sleep-restricted adults.” International journal of endocrinology vol. 2012 (2012): 530726. doi:10.1155/2012/530726

 

The effects of exercise training associated with low-level laser therapy on biomarkers of adipose tissue transdifferentiation in obese women

da Silveira Campos RM, Dâmaso AR, Masquio DCL, et al. The effects of exercise training associated with low-level laser therapy on biomarkers of adipose tissue transdifferentiation in obese women. Lasers Med Sci. 2018;33(6):1245-1254. doi:10.1007/s10103-018-2465-1

 

Low-Level Laser Therapy as a Non-Invasive Approach for Body Contouring: A Randomized, Controlled Study

Jackson RF, Dedo DD, Roche GC, et al. Low-level laser therapy as a non-invasive approach for body contouring: a randomized, controlled study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Dec 2009;41(10):99-809.

 

Independent evaluation of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs
McRae E, Boris J. Independent evaluation of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs. Lasers Surg Med. 2013;45(1):1-7. doi:10.1002/lsm.22113

 

The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment

Sene-Fiorese M, Duarte FO, de Aquino Junior AE, et al. The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment. Lasers Surg Med. 2015;47(8):634-642. doi:10.1002/lsm.22395

 

Can low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with an aerobic plus resistance training change the cardiometabolic risk in obese women? A placebo-controlled clinical trial

Duarte FO, Sene-Fiorese M, de Aquino Junior AE, et al. Can low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with an aerobic plus resistance training change the cardiometabolic risk in obese women? A placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015;153:103-110. doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.08.026

 

When is the best moment to apply photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) when associated to a treadmill endurance-training program? A randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial

Miranda EF, Tomazoni SS, et al. When is the best moment to apply photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) when associated to a treadmill endurance-training program? A randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lasers in Med Science. 2018 May;33(4):719-727.

 

New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training

Paolillo FR, Borghi-Silva A, Parizotto NA, Kurachi C, Bagnato VS. New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2011;13(4):166-171. doi:10.3109/14764172.2011.594065

 

 

Inflammation

 

Mechanisms and Mitochondrial Redox Signaling in Photobiomodulation

Hamblin M. “Mechanisms and Mitochondrial Redox Signaling in Photobiomodulation” Photochemistry and Photobiology. 2018, 94:199-212. 2017 October 31. doi: 10.1111/php.12864

 

Effect of phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness

Douris P., Southard V., Ferrigi R., Grauer J., Katz D., Nascimento C., Podbielski P. “Effect of Phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness”. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 June ;24(3):377-82.

 

Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation

Hamblin MR. Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation. AIMS Biophys. 2017;4(3):337-361. doi:10.3934/biophy.2017.3.337

 

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on acute pain and inflammation in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty-a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

Langella LG, Casalechi HL, Tomazoni SS, et al. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on acute pain and inflammation in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty-a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lasers Med Sci. 2018;33(9):1933-1940. doi:10.1007/s10103-018-2558-x

 

Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the development of exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and changes in biochemical markers related to postexercise recovery.

Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Frigo L, et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the development of exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and changes in biochemical markers related to postexercise recovery. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(8):524-532. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3294

 

 

Mental Health / Depression / Seasonal Affective Disorder

 

Transcranial Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. The ELATED-2 Pilot Trial

Cassano P, Petrie SR, Mischoulon D, et al. Transcranial Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. The ELATED-2 Pilot Trial. Photomed Laser Surg. 2018;36(12):634-646. doi:10.1089/pho.2018.4490

 

How might circadian rhythms control mood? Let me count the ways…..

McClung, Colleen A. “How might circadian rhythms control mood? Let me count the ways...” Biological psychiatry vol. 74,4 (2013): 242-9. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.019

 

Transcranial Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. The ELATED-2 Pilot Trial

Cassano P, Petrie SR, Mischoulon D, et al. Transcranial Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. The ELATED-2 Pilot Trial. Photomed Laser Surg. 2018;36(12):634-646. doi:10.1089/pho.2018.4490

 

 

Muscle Recovery

 

Evaluation of inflammatory biomarkers associated with oxidative stress and histological assessment of low-level laser therapy in experimental myopathy

Servetto N, Cremonezzi D, Simes JC, et al. Evaluation of inflammatory biomarkers associated with oxidative stress and histological assessment of low-level laser therapy in experimental myopathy. Lasers Surg Med. 2010;42(6):577-583. doi:10.1002/lsm.20910

 

Anti-inflammatory effects of low-level laser therapy on human periodontal ligament cells: in vitro study

Lee JH, Chiang MH, Chen PH, Ho ML, Lee HE, Wang YH. Anti-inflammatory effects of low-level laser therapy on human periodontal ligament cells: in vitro study. Lasers Med Sci. 2018;33(3):469-477. doi:10.1007/s10103-017-2376-6

 

Effect of 655-nm low-level laser therapy on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in humans

Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Dalan F, et al. Effect of 655-nm low-level laser therapy on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in humans. Photomed Laser Surg. 2008;26(5):419-424. doi:10.1089/pho.2007.2160

 

Protection of skeletal muscles from ischemic injury: low-level laser therapy increases antioxidant activity

Avni D, Levkovitz S, Maltz L, Oron U. Protection of skeletal muscles from ischemic injury: low-level laser therapy increases antioxidant activity. Photomed Laser Surg. 2005;23(3):273-277. doi:10.1089/pho.2005.23.273

 

Effect of phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness

Douris P, Southard V, Ferrigi R, et al. Effect of phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006;24(3):377-382. doi:10.1089/pho.2006.24.377

 

Phototherapy in skeletal muscle performance and recovery after exercise: effect of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes

Antonialli FC, De Marchi T, Tomazoni SS, et al. Phototherapy in skeletal muscle performance and recovery after exercise: effect of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes. Lasers Med Sci. 2014;29(6):1967-1976. doi:10.1007/s10103-014-1611-7

 

Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in traumatized muscle

Rizzi CF, Mauriz JL, Freitas Corrêa DS, et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in traumatized muscle. Lasers Surg Med. 2006;38(7):704-713. doi:10.1002/lsm.20371

 

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in human progressive-intensity running: effects on exercise performance, skeletal muscle status, and oxidative stress

De Marchi T, Leal Junior EC, Bortoli C, Tomazoni SS, Lopes-Martins RA, Salvador M. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in human progressive-intensity running: effects on exercise performance, skeletal muscle status, and oxidative stress. Lasers Med Sci. 2012;27(1):231-236. doi:10.1007/s10103-011-0955-5

 

Light-emitting diode phototherapy improves muscle recovery after a damaging exercise

Borges LS, et al. Light-emitting diode phototherapy improves muscle recovery after a damaging exercise. Lasers in Medical Science. 2014 May;29(3):1139-44.[8] Paolillo FR, Corazza AV, et al. Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2014 Jun;17(3):285-93.

 

Effects of Infrared-LED Illumination Applied During High-Intensity Treadmill Training in Postmenopausal Women

Paolillo FR, Milan JC, Aniceto IV, et al. Effects of infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training in postmenopausal women. Photomedicine in Laser Surg. 2011 Sep;29(9):639-45.

 

Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans

Baroni BM, Leal Junior EC, De Marchi T, Lopes AL, Salvador M, Vaz MA. Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;110(4):789-796. doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1562-z

 

A randomised, placebo controlled trial of low level laser therapy for activated Achilles tendinitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous prostaglandin E2 concentrations

Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA, Iversen VV. A randomised, placebo controlled trial of low level laser therapy for activated Achilles tendinitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous prostaglandin E2 concentrations. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(1):76-80. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2005.020842

 

Low-level laser therapy induces dose-dependent reduction of TNFalpha levels in acute inflammation

Aimbire F, Albertini R, Pacheco MT, et al. Low-level laser therapy induces dose-dependent reduction of TNF alpha levels in acute inflammation. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006;24:33–37.

 

Time Response of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Muscular Fatigue in Humans

Rossato M, Dellagrana RA, Sakugawa RL, Lazzari CD, Baroni BM, Diefenthaeler F. Time Response of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Muscular Fatigue in Humans. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(11):3285-3293. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002339

 

Red (660 nm) and infrared (830 nm) low-level laser therapy in skeletal muscle fatigue in humans: what is better?

de Almeida, Patrícia et al. “Red (660 nm) and infrared (830 nm) low-level laser therapy in skeletal muscle fatigue in humans: what is better?.” Lasers in medical science vol. 27,2 (2012): 453-8. doi:10.1007/s10103-011-0957-3

 

Phototherapy on Management of Creatine Kinase Activity in General Versus Localized Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

 Machado AF, et al. Phototherapy on Management of Creatine Kinase Activity in General Versus Localized Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018 Jun 21

 

Effect of cluster multi-diode light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and skeletal muscle recovery in humans

Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Rossi RP, et al. Effect of cluster multi-diode light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and skeletal muscle recovery in humans. Lasers in Surgical Medicine. 2009 Oct;41(8):572-7.[21] De Marchi T, Leal-Junior ECP, et al. Photobiomodulation therapy before futsal matches improves the staying time of athletes in the court and accelerates post-exercise recovery. Lasers in Medical Science. 2018 Sep 27

 

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) improves performance and accelerates recovery of high-level Rugby players in field test: A randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

Pinto HD, Vanin AA, et al. Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Performance and Accelerates Recovery of High-Level Rugby Players in Field Test: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2016 Dec;30(12):3329-3338.

 

 

Ocular Health

 

SIX YEARS FOLLOW-UP OF LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY (LLLT) IN PATIENTS WITH AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (AMD).

Article in International Journal of Advanced Research 5(9):1428-1432 · September 2017 with 152 Reads 

 

Mitochondrial decline precedes phenotype development in the complement factor H mouse model of retinal degeneration but can be corrected by near infrared light

Calaza KC, Kam JH, Hogg C, Jeffery G. Mitochondrial decline precedes phenotype development in the complement factor H mouse model of retinal degeneration but can be corrected by near infrared light. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36(10):2869-2876. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.06.010

 

Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal diseases: a review

Geneva, Ivayla I. “Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal diseases: a review.” International journal of ophthalmology vol. 9,1 145-52. 18 Jan. 2016, doi:10.18240/ijo.2016.01.24

 

Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

Rojas JC, Gonzalez-Lima F. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain. Eye Brain. 2011;3:49-67. Published 2011 Oct 14. doi:10.2147/EB.S21391

 

Short-term effects of extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field and pulsed low-level laser therapy on rabbit model of corneal alkali burn

Rezaei Kanavi M, Tabeie F, Sahebjam F, et al. Short-term effects of extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field and pulsed low-level

laser therapy on rabbit model of corneal alkali burn. Exp Eye Res. 2016;145:216-223. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2016.01.007

 

Treatment strategies for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

Jurkute, Neringaa; Harvey, Joshuaa,b; Yu-Wai-Man, Patricka,c,d,e Treatment strategies for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, Current Opinion in Neurology: February 2019 - Volume 32 - Issue 1 - p 99-104 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000646

 

Near infrared light reduces oxidative stress and preserves function in CNS tissue vulnerable to secondary degeneration following partial transection of the optic nerve

Fitzgerald M, Bartlett CA, Payne SC, et al. Near infrared light reduces oxidative stress and preserves function in CNS tissue vulnerable to secondary degeneration following partial transection of the optic nerve. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27(11):2107-2119. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1426

 

Helium-neon laser therapy in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure: A superior option

Xu QH, Zhao C, Zhu JG, Chen MJ, Liu QH. Helium-neon laser therapy in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure: A superior option. Exp Ther Med. 2015;10(3):1074-1078. doi:10.3892/etm.2015.2589

 

Current and Emerging Treatment Modalities for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: A Review of the Literature

Theodorou-Kanakari, Anna et al. “Current and Emerging Treatment Modalities for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: A Review of the Literature.” Advances in therapy vol. 35,10 (2018): 1510-1518. doi:10.1007/s12325-018-0776-z

 

 

Pain

 

Efficacy of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

Alayat MS, Aly TH, et al. Efficacy of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Lasers in Medical Science. 2017 Apr;32(3):503-511.

 

Effectiveness of High Intensity Laser Therapy for Reduction of Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis

Angelova A, Ilieva EM. Effectiveness of High Intensity Laser Therapy for Reduction of Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis. Pain Res Manag. 2016;2016:9163618. doi:10.1155/2016/9163618

 

A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders.

Fukuda VO, Fukuda TY, Guimarães M, et al. SHORT-TERM EFFICACY OF LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL. Rev Bras Ortop. 2015;46(5):526-533. Published 2015 Dec 6. doi:10.1016/S2255-4971(15)30407-9

 

Radiological and biochemical effects (CTX-II, MMP-3, 8, and 13) of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in chronic osteoarthritis in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

S GN, Kamal W, George J, Manssor E. Radiological and biochemical effects (CTX-II, MMP-3, 8, and 13) of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in chronic osteoarthritis in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Lasers Med Sci. 2017;32(2):297-303. doi:10.1007/s10103-016-2114-5

 

Incorporation of photobiomodulation therapy into a therapeutic exercise program for knee osteoarthritis: A placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial

de Paula Gomes CAF, Leal-Junior ECP, Dibai-Filho AV, et al. Incorporation of photobiomodulation therapy into a therapeutic exercise program for knee osteoarthritis: A placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial. Lasers Surg Med. 2018;50(8):819-828. doi:10.1002/lsm.22939

 

Modulation of immune response to induced-arthritis by low-level laser therapy

Dos Anjos LMJ, Salvador PA, de Souza ÁC, de Souza da Fonseca A, de Paoli F, Gameiro J. Modulation of immune response to induced-arthritis by low-level laser therapy. J Biophotonics. 2019;12(2):e201800120. doi:10.1002/jbio.201800120

 

Low-level laser therapy in meniscal pathology: a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial

Malliaropoulos N, Kiritsi O, Tsitas K, et al. Low-level laser therapy in meniscal pathology: a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Lasers Med Sci. 2013;28(4):1183-1188. doi:10.1007/s10103-012-1219-8

 

A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders

Bjordal JM, Couppé C, Chow RT, Tunér J, Ljunggren EA. A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders. Aust J Physiother. 2003;49(2):107-116. doi:10.1016/s0004-9514(14)60127-6

Stasinopoulos D, et al. LLLT for the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Lasers in Medical Science. 2016 Apr;31(3):459-69.

 

Positive effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on Bouchard's and Heberden's osteoarthritis

Baltzer AW, Ostapczuk MS, Stosch D. Positive effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on Bouchard's and Heberden's osteoarthritis. Lasers Surg Med. 2016;48(5):498-504. doi:10.1002/lsm.22480

 

 

Efficacy of low level laser therapy associated with exercises in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind study

Alfredo PP, Bjordal JM, Dreyer SH, et al. Efficacy of low level laser therapy associated with exercises in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind study. Clin Rehabil. 2012;26(6):523-533. doi:10.1177/0269215511425962

 

Low level laser therapy for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a metaanalysis

Brosseau L, Welch V, Wells G, et al. Low level laser therapy for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a metaanalysis. J Rheumatol. 2000;27(8):1961-1969.

 

Synergic effects of ultrasound and laser on the pain relief in women with hand osteoarthritis

Paolillo AR, Paolillo FR, João JP, João HA, Bagnato VS. Synergic effects of ultrasound and laser on the pain relief in women with hand osteoarthritis. Lasers Med Sci. 2015;30(1):279-286. doi:10.1007/s10103-014-1659-4

 

 

Skin

 

Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring

Avci P, Gupta A, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. Mar 2013; 32(1): 41-52.

 

Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation

Hamblin, Michael R. “Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation.” AIMS biophysics vol. 4,3 (2017): 337-361. doi:10.3934/biophy.2017.3.337

 

A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase

Wunsch A, Matuschka K. A controlled trial to determine the efficacy of red and near-infrared light treatment in patient satisfaction, reduction of fine lines, wrinkles, skin roughness, and intradermal collagen density increase. Photomed Laser Surg. 2014;32(2):93-100. doi:10.1089/pho.2013.3616

 

Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. Feb 2014; 32(2): 93-100.

Wunsch A, Matuschka K. A controlled trial to determine the efficacy of red and near-infrared light treatment in patient satisfaction, reduction of fine lines, wrinkles, skin roughness, and intradermal collagen density increase. Photomed Laser Surg. 2014;32(2):93-100. doi:10.1089/pho.2013.3616

 

Dual Effect of Photobiomodulation on Melasma: Downregulation of Hyperpigmentation and Enhanced Solar Resistance-A Pilot Study

Daniel Barolet, J Clin Aesthet Dermatol, Dual Effect of Photobiomodulation on Melasma: Downregulation of Hyperpigmentation and Enhanced Solar Resistance—A Pilot Study, 2018 Apr; 11(4): 28–34.

 

Combined Treatment with Low-Level Laser and rhBMP-2 Promotes Differentiation and Mineralization of Osteoblastic Cells under Hypoxic Stress

Heo JH, Choi JH, Kim IR, Park BS, Kim YD. Combined Treatment with Low-Level Laser and rhBMP-2 Promotes Differentiation and Mineralization of Osteoblastic Cells under Hypoxic Stress. Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2018;15(6):793-801. Published 2018 Nov 17. doi:10.1007/s13770-018-0167-1

 

Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring

Avci P, Gupta A, Sadasivam M, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2013;32(1):41-52.

 

Regulation of skin collagen metabolism in vitro using a pulsed 660 nm LED light source: clinical correlation with a single-blinded study

Barolet D, Roberge CJ, Auger FA, Boucher A, Germain L. Regulation of skin collagen metabolism in vitro using a pulsed 660 nm LED light source: clinical correlation with a single-blinded study. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129(12):2751-2759. doi:10.1038/jid.2009.186

 

A study to determine the efficacy of a novel handheld light-emitting diode device in the treatment of photoaged skin

Sadick NS. A study to determine the efficacy of a novel handheld light-emitting diode device in the treatment of photoaged skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008;7(4):263-267. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2008.00404.x

 

Effects of radiofrequency, electroacupuncture, and low-level laser therapy on the wrinkles and moisture content of the forehead, eyes, and cheek

Kim HK, Choi JH. Effects of radiofrequency, electroacupuncture, and low-level laser therapy on the wrinkles and moisture content of the forehead, eyes, and cheek. J Phys Ther Sci. 2017;29(2):290-294. doi:10.1589/jpts.29.290

 

Should open excisions and sutured incisions be treated differently? A review and meta-analysis of animal wound models following low-level laser therapy

Gál P, Stausholm MB, Kováč I, et al. Should open excisions and sutured incisions be treated differently? A review and meta-analysis of animal wound models following low-level laser therapy. Lasers Med Sci. 2018;33(6):1351-1362. doi:10.1007/s10103-018-2496-7

 

LED phototherapy in full-thickness burns induced by CO 2 laser in rats skin

da Silva Melo M, Alves LP, Fernandes AB, et al. LED phototherapy in full-thickness burns induced by CO2 laser in rats skin. Lasers Med Sci. 2018;33(7):1537-1547. doi:10.1007/s10103-018-2515-8

 

Effect of low-level laser therapy on types I and III collagen and inflammatory cells in rats with induced third-degree burns

Fiório FB, Albertini R, Leal-Junior EC, de Carvalho Pde T. Effect of low-level laser therapy on types I and III collagen and inflammatory cells in rats with induced third-degree burns. Lasers Med Sci. 2014;29(1):313-319. doi:10.1007/s10103-013-1341-2

 

Mechanisms of repigmentation induced by photobiomodulation therapy in vitiligo

Yu S, Lan CE, Yu HS. Mechanisms of repigmentation induced by photobiomodulation therapy in vitiligo. Exp Dermatol. 2019;28 Suppl 1:10-14. doi:10.1111/exd.13823

 

 

Sleep

 

Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players

Zhao J, Tian Y, Nie J, Xu J, Liu D. Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players. J Athl Train. 2012;47(6):673-678. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-47.6.08

 

Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults

Figueiro, Mariana G et al. “Light modulates leptin and ghrelin in sleep-restricted adults.” International journal of endocrinology vol. 2012 (2012): 530726. doi:10.1155/2012/530726

 

 “Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation” National Academy of Sciences. 2006, Bookshelf ID: NBK19960. doi: 10.17226/11617

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research; Colten HR, Altevogt BM, editors. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006. 2, Sleep Physiology. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19956/

 

Impact of sleep and sleep loss on glucose homeostasis and appetite regulation

Knutson, Kristen L. “Impact of sleep and sleep loss on glucose homeostasis and appetite regulation.” Sleep medicine clinics vol. 2,2 (2007): 187-197. doi:10.1016/j.jsmc.2007.03.004

 

Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

Sharma, Sunil, and Mani Kavuru. “Sleep and metabolism: an overview.” International journal of endocrinology vol. 2010 (2010): 270832. doi:10.1155/2010/270832

 

Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation

Irwin, Michael R et al. “Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation.” Biological psychiatry vol. 80,1 (2016): 40-52. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.05.014

 

Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition

Killgore WD. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition. Prog Brain Res. 2010;185:105-129. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53702-7.00007-5

 

Sleep Loss and Inflammation

Mullington, Janet M et al. “Sleep loss and inflammation.” Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism vol. 24,5 (2010): 775-84. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2010.08.014

 

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Zhu, Lirong, and Phyllis C Zee. “Circadian rhythm sleep disorders.” Neurologic clinics vol. 30,4 (2012): 1167-91. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2012.08.011

 

Botulinum toxin A (BT-A) versus low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in chronic migraine treatment: a comparison

Loeb LM, Amorim RP, Mazzacoratti MDGN, Scorza FA, Peres MFP. Botulinum toxin A (BT-A) versus low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in chronic migraine treatment: a comparison. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2018;76(10):663-667. doi:10.1590/0004-282X20180109

 

Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study

Naeser MA, Zafonte R, Krengel MH, et al. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study. J Neurotrauma. 2014;31(11):1008-1017. doi:10.1089/neu.2013.3244

 

Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG power in normal subjects with closed eyes

Wu JH, Chang YC. Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG power in normal subjects with closed eyes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:476565. doi:10.1155/2013/476565

Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players

Zhao J, Tian Y, Nie J, Xu J, Liu D. Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players. J Athl Train. 2012;47(6):673-678. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-47.6.08

 

Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans

Morita T, Tokura H. Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans. Appl Human Sci. 1996;15(5):243-246. doi:10.2114/jpa.15.243

 

Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: A Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society

Watson, Nathaniel F et al. “Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: A Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society.” Sleep vol. 38,6 843-4. 1 Jun. 2015, doi:10.5665/sleep.4716

 

 

Testosterone

 

Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility

Vladimirovich Moskvin S, Ivanovich Apolikhin O. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility. Biomedicine (Taipei). 2018;8(2):7. doi:10.1051/bmdcn/2018080207

 

Effect of red light on optically trapped spermatozoa

Chow KW, Preece D, Berns MW. Effect of red light on optically trapped spermatozoa. Biomed Opt Express. 2017;8(9):4200-4205. Published 2017 Aug 23. doi:10.1364/BOE.8.004200

 

Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage

Preece D, Chow KW, Gomez-Godinez V, et al. Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage. Sci Rep. 2017;7:46480. Published 2017 Apr 20. doi:10.1038/srep46480

 

Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates

Yeste, M., Codony, F., Estrada, E. et al. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates. Sci Rep 6, 22569 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep22569

 

Effect of 655-nm diode laser on dog sperm motility

Corral-Baqués MI, Rigau T, Rivera M, Rodríguez JE, Rigau J. Effect of 655-nm diode laser on dog sperm motility. Lasers Med Sci. 2005;20(1):28-34. doi:10.1007/s10103-005-0332-3

 

Effect of continuous light on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in rats: possible involvement of alpha 2u-globulin

Biswas NM, Biswas R, Biswas NM, Mandal LH. Effect of continuous light on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in rats: possible involvement of alpha 2u-globulin. Nepal Med Coll J. 2013;15(1):62-64.

 

Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring

Avci, Pinar et al. “Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring.” Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery vol. 32,1 (2013): 41-52.

 

Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia

Ban Frangez H, Frangez I, Verdenik I, Jansa V, Virant Klun I. Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia. Lasers Med Sci. 2015;30(1):235-240. doi:10.1007/s10103-014-1653-x

 

Lack of interest in sex successfully treated by exposure to bright light

European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP). "Lack of interest in sex successfully treated by exposure to bright light." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 September 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160918214443.htm>.